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Treatment Depression2019-05-27T11:14:49+00:00

Types of Depression – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

 What is depression?

Sadness, feeling down, having a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities are symptoms familiar to all of us. But, if they persist and affect our life substantially, it may be depression. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is the most common illness worldwide and the leading cause of disability. They estimate that over 50 million people are affected by depression, in India.

Depression Test

Depression is a mood disorder characterized by persistently low mood and a feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is a persistent problem, not a passing one, lasting on average of 6 to 8 months.
Take a simple PHQ-9 depression test.

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Diagnosis of depression starts with a doctor’s or a mental health specialist’s consultation. It is important to seek the help of a health professional to rule out different causes of depression, ensure an accurate differential diagnosis, and secure safe and effective treatment. As for most visits to the doctor, there may be a physical examination to check for physical causes and coexisting conditions. Questions will also be asked – ‘taking a history’ – to establish the symptoms, their time course, and so on.

  What does not class as depression?

Depression is different from the fluctuations in mood that people experience as a part of a normal life. Temporary emotional responses to the challenges of everyday life do not constitute depression. Likewise, even the feeling of grief resulting from the death of someone close is not itself depression if it does not persist. Depression can, however, be related to bereavement – when depression follows a loss,

Signs and Symptoms

  • Depressed mood

  • Reduced interest or pleasure in activities previously enjoyed

  • Loss of sexual desire

  • Unintentional weight loss (without dieting) or low appetite

  • Insomnia (difficulty sleeping) or Hypersomnia (excessive sleeping)

  • Psychomotor agitation, for example, restlessness, pacing up and down

  • Delayed psychomotor skills, for example, slowed movement and speech

  • Fatigue or loss of energy

  • Feelin

  • Impaired ability to think, concentrate, or make decisions

  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or attempt at suicide

Causes

The causes of depression are not fully understood and may not be down to a single source.Depression is likely to be due to a complex combination of factors that include:

  • Genetics
  • Biological – changes in neurotransmitter levels
  • Environmental
  • Psychological and social (psychosocial)

Some people are at higher risk of depression than others; risk factors include:

Life Events

Life Events

You feel the terror that strikes at random. During a panic attack, you may also sweat, have chest pain, and feel palpitations (unusually strong or irregular heartbeats). Sometimes you may feel like you’re choking or having a heart attack.

Personality

Personality

Those with less successful coping strategies or previous life trauma are more susceptible.

Genetic factors

Genetic factors

Having first-degree relatives with depression increases the risk.

Few prescription drugs

Few prescription drugs

These include corticosteroids, some beta-blockers, interferon, and other prescription drugs.

Abuse of recreational drugs

Abuse of recreational drugs

Abuse of alcohol, amphetamines, and other drugs are strongly linked to depression.

Having had one episode of major depression

Having had one episode of major depression

This increases the risk of a subsequent one.

Chronic Pain Syndromes

Chronic Pain Syndromes

These and other chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease make depression more likely.

Childhood trauma

Childhood trauma

Childhood trauma.

 Risk Factors

Unipolar and bipolar depression
If the predominant feature is a depressed mood, it is called unipolar depression. However, if it is characterized by both manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood, it is referred to as bipolar disorder (previously called manic depression). Unipolar depression can involve anxiety and other symptoms – but no manic episodes. However, research shows that for around 40 percent of the time, individuals with bipolar disorder are depressed, making the two conditions difficult to distinguish.

Major depressive disorder with psychotic features
This condition is characterized by depression accompanied by psychosis. Psychosis can involve delusions – false beliefs and detachment from reality, or hallucinations – sensing things that do not exist.

Postpartum depression
Women often experience ‘baby blues’ with a newborn, but postpartum depression – also known as postnatal depression – is more severe.

Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Previously called as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), this condition is related to the reduced daylight of winter – the depression occurs during this season but lifts for the rest of the year and in response to light therapy.

How to overcome Anxiety Disorder?
Listed below are the treatments for Anxiety Disorder.

Pharmacotherapy

Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy

Exposure Therapy

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Facts about depression
Listed below are the treatments for Anxiety Disorder.

  What does not class as depression?

Depression is different from the fluctuations in mood that people experience as a part of a normal life. Temporary emotional responses to the challenges of everyday life do not constitute depression. Likewise, even the feeling of grief resulting from the death of someone close is not itself depression if it does not persist. Depression can, however, be related to bereavement – when depression follows a loss,

Signs and Symptoms

  • Depressed mood
  • Reduced interest or pleasure in activities previously enjoyed
  • Loss of sexual desire
  • Unintentional weight loss (without dieting) or low appetite
  • Insomnia (difficulty sleeping) or Hypersomnia (excessive sleeping)
  • Psychomotor agitation, for example, restlessness, pacing up and down
  • Delayed psychomotor skills, for example, slowed movement and speech
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feelin
  • Impaired ability to think, concentrate, or make decisions
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or attempt at suicide

Causes

The causes of depression are not fully understood and may not be down to a single source.Depression is likely to be due to a complex combination of factors that include:

  • Genetics
  • Biological – changes in neurotransmitter levels
  • Environmental
  • Psychological and social (psychosocial)

Some people are at higher risk of depression than others; risk factors include:

Life events: These include bereavement, divorce, work issues, relationships with friends and family, financial problems, medical concerns, or acute stress.

Personality: Those with less successful coping strategies or previous life trauma are more susceptible.

Genetic factors: Having first-degree relatives with depression increases the risk.

Childhood trauma.

Few prescription drugs: These include corticosteroids, some beta-blockers, interferon, and other prescription drugs.

Abuse of recreational drugs: Abuse of alcohol, amphetamines, and other drugs are strongly linked to depression.

A past head injury.

Having had one episode of major depression: This increases the risk of a subsequent one.

Chronic Pain Syndromes: These and other chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease make depression more likely.

 Risk Factors

Unipolar and bipolar depression
If the predominant feature is a depressed mood, it is called unipolar depression. However, if it is characterized by both manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood, it is referred to as bipolar disorder (previously called manic depression). Unipolar depression can involve anxiety and other symptoms – but no manic episodes. However, research shows that for around 40 percent of the time, individuals with bipolar disorder are depressed, making the two conditions difficult to distinguish.

Major depressive disorder with psychotic features
This condition is characterized by depression accompanied by psychosis. Psychosis can involve delusions – false beliefs and detachment from reality, or hallucinations – sensing things that do not exist.

Postpartum depression
Women often experience ‘baby blues’ with a newborn, but postpartum depression – also known as postnatal depression – is more severe.

Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Previously called as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), this condition is related to the reduced daylight of winter – the depression occurs during this season but lifts for the rest of the year and in response to light therapy.

How to overcome Anxiety Disorder?
Listed below are the treatments for Anxiety Disorder.

Pharmacotherapy

Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy

Exposure Therapy

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Facts about depression
Listed below are the treatments for Anxiety Disorder.

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